Effects of transaldolase exchange on estimates of gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes

Aman Rajpal, Simmi Dube, Filipa Carvalho, Ana Rita Simoes, Angelo Figueiredo, Ananda Basu, John Jones, Rita Basu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Transaldolase (TA) exchange overestimates gluconeogenesis measured with deuterated water (2H2O). However, it is unknown whether TA differs in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). 2H2O was ingested, and [1-13C]acetate and [3-3H]glucose were infused in T2DM (n = 10) and healthy nondiabetic (ND; n = 8) subjects. TA was assessed from the ratio of 13C3 to 13C4 glucose enrichment (13C3/13C4) measured by 13C NMR. Glucose turnover was measured before (~16-h fast) and during hyperglycemic (~10 mM) moderate-dose insulin (~0.35 mU·kg-1·min-1) clamp. 13C3/13C4 in T2DM vs. ND was <1.0 and not different at baseline and clamp, indicating equivalent TA. To determine whether incomplete triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) exchange contributed to asymmetric 13C3/13C4, [U-13C]glycerol was infused in lieu of [1-13C]acetate during a separate visit in a subset of ND (n = 7) subjects. Ratio of 13C3/13C4 obtained following either tracer was <1.0 at baseline and during clamp, indicating that TPI exchange was essentially complete and did not contribute to asymmetric glucose enrichment. Uncorrected and corrected rates of gluconeogenesis were no different (P = not significant) in T2DM vs. ND both at baseline and during clamp. TA correction resulted in equivalent estimates of corrected gluconeogenesis in T2DM and ND that were ~25-35% lower than uncorrected gluconeogenesis both at baseline and during the clamp. The asymmetric enrichment of glucose from 13C-gluconeogenic tracers is attributable to TA exchange and can be utilized to correct for TA exchange. In conclusion, TA exchange does not differ between T2DM and ND under fasting or hyperglycemic clamp conditions, and the 2H2O method continues to provide an accurate estimation of gluconeogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E465-E474
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 8 2013


  • Deuterated water
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Transaldolase
  • Triose phosphate isomerase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Effects of transaldolase exchange on estimates of gluconeogenesis in type 2 diabetes'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this