Effect of sex differences in treatment response to angioplasty in a murine arteriovenous fistula model

Chuanqi Cai, Chenglei Zhao, Sreenivasulu Kilari, Amit Sharma, Avishek K. Singh, Michael L. Simeon, Avanish Misra, Yiqing Li, Sanjay Misra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Failure to mature and venous neointimal hyperplasia formation are the two major causes of hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) vascular access failure. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is the firstline treatment for both of these conditions, but, clinically, women have decreased patency rates compared with men. The hypothesis to be tested in the present study was that female mice after PTA of venous areas of higher intimal thickening have increased gene expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and TGF-β receptor 1 (TGFβ-R1) accompanied with histological changes of fibrosis compared with male mice. Seventeen male and eighteen female C57BL/6J mice were used in this study. Chronic kidney disease was induced by partial nephrectomy, and, 28 days later, an AVF was created to connect the left carotid artery to the right jugular vein. Two weeks later, the higher intimal thickening area was treated with PTA, and mice were euthanized 3 days later for gene expression analysis or 14 days later for histopathological analysis. Doppler ultrasound was performed weekly after AVF creation. At day 3, female AVF had significantly higher average gene expression of TGF-β1 and TGFβ-R1 compared with male AVF. At day 14, female outflow veins had a smaller venous diameter, lumen vessel area, decreased wall shear stress, lower average peak systolic velocity, and an increased neointima area-to-media area ratio. Moreover, female outflow veins showed a significant increase in α-smooth muscle actin and fibroblast-specific protein-1. There was a decrease in M1/M2 with an increase in CD68.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)F565-F575
JournalAmerican journal of physiology. Renal physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020


  • angioplasty
  • arteriovenous fistula
  • murine model
  • restenosis
  • sexual disparity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Urology


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