Early post-transplant recurrence of ANCA vasculitis while on belatacept maintenance immunosuppression

Amogh Agrawal, Grace Yun Chong, Mary Elizabeth Fidler, Carl Henry Cramer, Hatem Amer, Andrew John Bentall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Post-transplant recurrence of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is infrequent, with recurrence within weeks of transplantation being even rarer. We describe an unusual case of AAV recurrence within 2 weeks post-transplant. Our patient received a deceased donor kidney transplant (KDPI 60%) after 6 years on hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease from AAV. She was induced with thymoglobulin and steroids, and maintained on belatacept, mycophenolate and prednisone. Time-zero biopsy showed acute tubular injury. Due to persistent delayed graft function by post-operative day 14, she underwent repeat biopsy, which showed focal segmental necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis, with positive MPO, PR3 and negative anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies. As her findings were in keeping with recurrent AAV, she underwent induction with rituximab, prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin, with repeat rituximab 14 days later because of increasing B-lymphocyte counts. Belatacept was replaced with tacrolimus due to concerns with autoimmunity. Fortunately, renal function began to recover 4 days after treatment. In addition to highlighting potential immunologic mechanisms in AAV and the use of rituximab in post-transplant recurrence, our case suggests that for systemic autoimmune disease, patients maintained on belatacept must be monitored closely for recurrence, particularly in the setting of delayed graft function. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1169-1174
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Nephrology
Issue number4
StatePublished - May 2023


  • ANCA vasculitis
  • Belatacept
  • Immunosuppression
  • Kidney transplant
  • Recurrent disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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