Early and Late Outcomes of the Warden and Modified Warden Procedure

Elaine M. Griffeth, Joseph A. Dearani, Jessey Mathew, Gabriel C. Graham, Heidi M. Connolly, Katherine S. King, Hartzell V. Schaff, Elizabeth H. Stephens

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Operative repair of partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) remains challenging due to risks of sinus node dysfunction, baffle obstruction, and superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction. Methods: Traditional or modified Warden procedures were performed in 75 of 318 consecutive patients (24%) with PAPVC repaired surgically at our institution during 1993 to 2021. Clinical characteristics, echocardiography data, operative details, and early and late outcomes were collected. Cumulative incidence of reintervention and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis are reported. Results: Median age was 39 years (interquartile range, 21-57 years). Fifty-nine (79%) had normal sinus rhythm preoperatively. Seventeen (23%) had intact atrial septa. Traditional and modified Warden procedures were performed in 15 (20%) and 60 (80%), respectively. Frequent concomitant procedures included 15 (20%) tricuspid valve repairs and 12 (16%) atrial fibrillation procedures. There were no early deaths. Postoperative complications included atrial fibrillation in 17 (23%), sinus node dysfunction in 15 (20%), pneumothorax in 3 (4%), pleural effusion in 2 (3%), and pacemaker implantation in 1 (1%). At hospital discharge, sinus node dysfunction persisted in 8 (11%). Over a median follow-up of 6 years (interquartile range, 4-10 years), baffle obstruction developed in 1 patient and SVC obstruction developed in 7. None required reoperation and 6 were treated with SVC stents. At 1, 5, and 10 years, the cumulative incidence of reintervention was 5%, 7%, and 14%, and survival was 99%, 94%, and 94%, respectively. Conclusions: Traditional and modified Warden procedures can be performed with satisfactory early and late survival. Persistent sinus node dysfunction and need for permanent pacing are low. Late SVC obstruction is uncommon and can often be managed nonoperatively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1723-1729
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of Thoracic Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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