Dynamic Imaging of Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells with [18F]Tetrafluoroborate Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography

Reona Sakemura, Michelle J. Cox, Aditya Bansal, Claudia Manriquez Roman, Mehrdad Hefazi, Cynthia J. Vernon, Dianna L. Glynn, Mukesh K. Pandey, Timothy R. Degrado, Elizabeth L. Siegler, Saad S. Kenderian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


T cells genetically engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have shown unprecedented results in pivotal clinical trials for patients with B cell malignancies or multiple myeloma (MM). However, numerous obstacles limit the efficacy and prohibit the widespread use of CAR T cell therapies due to poor trafficking and infiltration into tumor sites as well as lack of persistence in vivo. Moreover, life-threatening toxicities, such as cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity, are major concerns. Efficient and sensitive imaging and tracking of CAR T cells enables the evaluation of T cell trafficking, expansion, and in vivo characterization and allows the development of strategies to overcome the current limitations of CAR T cell therapy. This paper describes the methodology for incorporating the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in CAR T cells and for CAR T cell imaging using [18 F]tetrafluoroborate-positron emission tomography ([18 F]TFB-PET) in preclinical models. The methods described in this protocol can be applied to other CAR constructs and target genes in addition to the ones used for this study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere62334
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Issue number180
StatePublished - Feb 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Immunology and Microbiology


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