Development and Characterization of Isogenic Cardiac Organoids from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Under Supplement Starvation Regimen

Alejandra Patino-Guerrero, Ruben D. Ponce Wong, Vikram D. Kodibagkar, Wuqiang Zhu, Raymond Q. Migrino, Oliver Graudejus, Mehdi Nikkhah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is expected to increase the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) worldwide. Cardiac organoids are promising candidates for bridging the gap between in vitro experimentation and translational applications in drug development and cardiac repair due to their attractive features. Here we present the fabrication and characterization of isogenic scaffold-free cardiac organoids derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) formed under a supplement-deprivation regimen that allows for metabolic synchronization and maturation of hiPSC-derived cardiac cells. We propose the formation of coculture cardiac organoids that include hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes and hiPSC-derived cardiac fibroblasts (hiPSC-CMs and hiPSC-CFs, respectively). The cardiac organoids were characterized through extensive morphological assessment, evaluation of cellular ultrastructures, and analysis of transcriptomic and electrophysiological profiles. The morphology and transcriptomic profile of the organoids were improved by coculture of hiPSC-CMs with hiPSC-CFs. Specifically, upregulation of Ca2+ handling-related genes, such as RYR2 and SERCA, and structure-related genes, such as TNNT2 and MYH6, was observed. Additionally, the electrophysiological characterization of the organoids under supplement deprivation shows a trend for reduced conduction velocity for coculture organoids. These studies help us gain a better understanding of the role of other isogenic cells such as hiPSC-CFs in the formation of mature cardiac organoids, along with the introduction of exogenous chemical cues, such as supplement starvation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)944-958
Number of pages15
JournalACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 13 2023


  • cardiac organoids
  • isogenic engineered tissues
  • supplement starvation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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