Background: Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are formed via the nonenzymatic glycation of sugars with amino acids. Two AGEs, Nϵ-(1-carboxymethyl)-L-Lysine (CML) and pentosidine, have been observed to be elevated in subjects suffering from a multitude of chronic disease states, and accumulation of these compounds may be related to the pathophysiology of disease progression and aging. Methods: We describe here the development and validation of a specific and reproducible LC-MS/MS method to quantify CML and pentosidine in human serum with lower limits of quantitation of 75 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The analyte calibration curve exhibited excellent linearity at a range of 0-10 900 ng/mL for CML and 0-800 ng/mL for pentosidine. High-low linearity of 5 serum pairs was assessed, with a mean recovery of 103% (range 94 - 116%) for CML, and 104% (range 97 - 116%) for pentosidine. Results: Serum concentrations of CML and pentosidine were quantified in 30 control and 30 subjects with chronic renal insufficiency. A significant increase in both analytes was observed in renal failure compared to control subjects (2.1-fold and 8.4-fold, respectively; P < 0.001 for both). In a separate cohort of 49 control versus 95 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), serum CML but not serum pentosidine, was significantly elevated in the T2DM patients, and CML was also correlated with glycemic control, as assessed by hemoglobin A1c (r = 0.34, P < 0.001). Conclusions: These mass spectroscopy-based assays for serum CML and pentosidine should be useful in accurately evaluating circulating levels of these key AGEs in various disease states.
- advanced glycation endproducts
- mass spectroscopy
- renal failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas