Cyclotron Production of PET Radiometals in Liquid Targets: Aspects and Prospects

Mukesh K. Pandey, Timothy R. Degrado

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The present review describes the methodological aspects and prospects of the production of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) radiometals in a liquid target using low-medium energy medical cyclotrons. The main objective of this review is to delineate and discuss the critical factors involved in the liquid target production of radiometals, including type of salt solution, solution composition, beam energy, beam current, the effect of irradiation duration (length of irradiation) and challenges posed by in-target chemistry in relation with irradiation parameters. We also summarize the optimal parameters for the production of various radiometals in liquid targets. Additionally, we discuss the future prospects of PET radiometals production in the liquid targets for academic research and clinical applications. Significant emphasis has been given to the production of 68Ga using liquid targets due to the growing demand for 68Ga labeled PSMA vectors, [68Ga]- Ga-DOTATATE, [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC and some upcoming 68Ga labeled radiopharmaceuticals. Other PET radiometals included in the discussion are 86Y, 63Zn and 89Zr.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)325-339
Number of pages15
JournalCurrent Radiopharmaceuticals
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • 63Zn and 89Zr
  • 68Ga
  • 86Y
  • Cyclotron
  • Liquid target
  • Radiometals
  • Solution target

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Pharmacology


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