Cutaneous involvement in VEXAS syndrome: clinical and histopathologic findings

Alexander S. Hines, Nessa A. Mohandesi, Julia S. Lehman, Matthew J. Koster, Hafsa M. Cantwell, Afsaneh Alavi, Kenneth J. Warrington, Abhishek A. Mangaonkar, Ronald S. Go, Mrinal M. Patnaik, Julio C. Sartori-Valinotti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: VEXAS (vacuoles, E1 enzyme, X-linked, autoinflammatory, somatic) syndrome is an autoinflammatory disease with frequent cutaneous manifestations. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of all patients with genetically confirmed VEXAS syndrome seen at our institution. Available clinical photographs and skin biopsy slides were reviewed. Results: Cutaneous manifestations developed in 22/25 (88%) patients with VEXAS syndrome. From this group, 10/22 (45%) developed skin involvement before or at the time of other clinical features of VEXAS. Twenty distinct dermatologic presentations of VEXAS from 14 patients were reviewed, and histopathologic patterns were classified as follows: neutrophilic urticarial dermatosis (n = 5, 25%), leukocytoclastic/urticarial vasculitis (n = 4, 20%), urticarial tissue reaction (n = 4, 20%), neutrophilic dermatosis (n = 3, 15%), neutrophilic panniculitis (n = 2, 10%), and nonspecific chronic septal panniculitis (n = 2, 10%). Common systemic findings included macrocytic anemia (96%), fever (88%), thrombocytopenia (76%), weight loss (76%), ocular inflammation (64%), pulmonary infiltrates (56%), deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (52%), and inflammatory arthritis (52%). Conclusions: Cutaneous involvement is a common feature of VEXAS syndrome, and histopathologic findings exist on a spectrum of neutrophilic inflammatory dermatoses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)938-945
Number of pages8
JournalInternational journal of dermatology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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