Background: Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a primary mode of respiratory support for preterm infants. Animal studies have shown long-term detrimental effects on lung/airway development, particularly airway (AW) hyper-reactivity, as an unfortunate consequence of neonatal CPAP. Since the hyaluronan (HA) synthesizing enzyme hyaluronan synthase-3 (HAS3) is involved in various adult pulmonary disorders, the present study used a neonatal mouse model to investigate the role of HAS3 in CPAP-induced AW hyper-reactivity. Methods: Male and female neonatal mice were fitted with a custom-made mask for delivery of daily CPAP 3 h/day for 7 days. At postnatal day 21 (2 weeks after CPAP ended), airway (AW) hyper-reactivity and HAS3 expression were assessed with and without in vitro HAS3 siRNA treatment. Results: MRIs of 3-day-old mice confirmed that CPAP increased lung volume with incrementing inflation pressures. CPAP increased AW reactivity in both male and female mice, which was associated with increased airway smooth muscle and epithelial HAS3 immunoreactivity. CPAP did not affect HA accumulation, but HAS3 siRNA reversed CPAP-induced AW hyper-reactivity and reduced HAS3 expression. Conclusions: These data in mice implicate a role for HAS3 in long-term effects of CPAP in the developing airway in the context of preterm birth and CPAP therapy. Impact: Neonatal CPAP increases airway smooth muscle and epithelial HAS3 expression in mice.CPAP-induced airway hyper-reactivity is modulated by HAS3.These data enhance our understanding of the role mechanical forces play on lung development.These data are a significance step toward understanding CPAP effects on developing airway.These data may impact clinical recognition of the ways that CPAP may contribute to wheezing disorders of former preterm infants.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health