Control of Ca2+ influx by manipulation of Ca2+ and/or Ca2+ antagonist in cardioplegic arrest

Kazuhiro Hahimoto, Jay P. Mashburn, Raymond Cartier, Hartzell V. Schaff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Maximum deactivation of the contractile elements using Ca2+ minimizes oxygen requirements during global ischemia, Ca2+ antagonists and Ca2+-free cardioplegia solutions are methods by which the Ca2+ flux can be manipulated. This study was performed with 5 experimental groups: 1) Standard cardioplegia (with Ca2+), 2) Ca2+-free cardioplegia, 3) Ca2+-free cardioplegia plus verapamil (0.5 mg/L), 4) Verapamil cardioplegia (with Ca2+), and 5) Ca2+-free cardioplegia, in which verapamil was administered at the onset of reperfusion (0.5 mg/L). Cardiac functions, heart rate, edema formation, and creatine kinase concentration were measured before and after 70 min of ischemia at a myocardial temperature of 20 °C. Ca2+-free cardioplegia may be beneficial under hypothermic conditions, but the “Ca2+ paradox” was still a matter of concern. Reperfusion with verapamil did not protect from reperfusion-related injuries. However, the use of verapamil provided more protection than did standard or Ca2+-free cardioplegic solutions. Since verapamil did not maintain membrane integrity during ischemia when combined with Ca2+-free cardioplegic solutions (prominent edema formation was observed), its combination with Ca2+ containing cardioplegic solutions is recommended.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)237-244
Number of pages8
JournalJapanese Circulation Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1993


  • Calcium antagonist
  • Cardioplegia
  • Verapamil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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