Clinical characterization of primary hyperoxaluria type 3 in comparison with types 1 and 2

Prince Singh, Jason K. Viehman, Ramila A. Mehta, Andrea G. Cogal, Linda Hasadsri, Devin Oglesbee, Julie B. Olson, Barbara M. Seide, David J. Sas, Peter C. Harris, John C. Lieske, Dawn S. Milliner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) type 3 (PH3) is caused by mutations in the hydroxy-oxo-glutarate aldolase 1 gene. PH3 patients often present with recurrent urinary stone disease in the first decade of life, but prior reports suggested PH3 may have a milder phenotype in adults. This study characterized clinical manifestations of PH3 across the decades of life in comparison with PH1 and PH2. Methods: Clinical information was obtained from the Rare Kidney Stone Consortium PH Registry (PH1, n = 384; PH2, n = 51; PH3, n = 62). Results: PH3 patients presented with symptoms at a median of 2.7 years old compared with PH1 (4.9 years) and PH2 (5.7 years) (P = 0.14). Nephrocalcinosis was present at diagnosis in 4 (7%) PH3 patients, while 55 (89%) had stones. Median urine oxalate excretion was lowest in PH3 patients compared with PH1 and PH2 (1.1 versus 1.6 and 1.5 mmol/day/1.73 m2, respectively, P < 0.001) while urine calcium was highest in PH3 (112 versus 51 and 98 mg/day/1.73 m2 in PH1 and PH2, respectively, P < 0.001). Stone events per decade of life were similar across the age span and the three PH types. At 40 years of age, 97% of PH3 patients had not progressed to end-stage kidney disease compared with 36% PH1 and 66% PH2 patients. Conclusions: Patients with all forms of PH experience lifelong stone events, often beginning in childhood. Kidney failure is common in PH1 but rare in PH3. Longer-Term follow-up of larger cohorts will be important for a more complete understanding of the PH3 phenotype.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-875
Number of pages7
JournalNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2022


  • nephrocalcinosis
  • oxalate
  • primary hyperoxaluria
  • stone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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