Characterization of cardiac bradyarrhythmia associated with LGI1-IgG autoimmune encephalitis

Hannah H. Zhao-Fleming, Anza Zahid, Tong Lu, Xiaojing Sun, Sean J. Pittock, Hon Chi Lee, Divyanshu Dubey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate and characterize cardiac arrythmias associated with LGI1-IgG (Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 1–IgG) autoimmune encephalitis (AE). Patients and methods: In this retrospective descriptive study, we identified Mayo Clinic patients (May 1, 2008 – December 31, 2020) with LGI1-IgG AE who had electrocardiogram proven bradyarrhythmias during the initial presentation. Inclusion criteria were 1) LGI1-IgG positivity with a consistent clinical syndrome; 2) electrocardiographic evidence of bradyarrhythmia; and 3) sufficient clinical details. We excluded patients who were taking negative ionotropic agents at the time of their bradyarrhythmias. We collected demographic/clinical data including details of bradyarrhythmia (severity, duration, treatments), and neurologic and cardiac outcomes. Results: We found that patients with LGI1-IgG AE had bradyarrhythmia at a frequency of 8% during the initial presentation. The bradyarrhythmia was often asymptomatic (6/11, 55%); however, the episode was severe with one patient requiring a pacemaker. Outcome was also generally favorable with the majority (8/11, 73%) having full resolution without further cardiac intervention. Lastly, we found that mouse and human cardiac tissues express LGI1 (mRNA and protein). Conclusion: LGI1-IgG AE can be rarely associated with bradyarrhythmias. Although the disease course is mostly favorable, some cases may require pacemaker placement to avoid devastating outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number948479
JournalFrontiers in immunology
StatePublished - Oct 11 2022


  • LGI1-IgG
  • autoimmune encephalitis
  • cardiac bradyarrhythmia
  • outcomes
  • seizures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


Dive into the research topics of 'Characterization of cardiac bradyarrhythmia associated with LGI1-IgG autoimmune encephalitis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this