Cardiovascular Factors Associated with COVID-19 from an International Registry of Primarily Japanese Patients

Akira Matsumori, Matthew E. Auda, Katelyn A. Bruno, Katie A. Shapiro, Toru Kato, Toshihiro Nakamura, Koji Hasegawa, Ahmed Saleh, Sherif Abdelrazek, Hany Negm, Niyata Hananta Karunawan, Leslie T. Cooper, De Lisa Fairweather

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims: We developed an international registry to examine cardiovascular complications of COVID-19. Methods: A REDCap form was created in March 2020 at Mayo Clinic in collaboration with the International Society of Cardiomyopathy, Myocarditis and Heart Failure (ISCMF) and data were entered from April 2020 through April 2021. Results: Of the 696 patients in the COVID-19 Registry, 411 (59.2%) were male and 283 (40.8%) were female, with a sex ratio of 1.5:1 male to female. In total, 95.5% of the patients were from Japan. The average age was 52 years with 31.5% being >65 years of age. COVID-19 patients with a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) had more pre-existing conditions including type II diabetes (p < 0.0001), cancer (p = 0.0003), obesity (p = 0.001), and kidney disease (p = 0.001). They also had a greater mortality of 10.1% compared to 1.7% in those without a history of CVD (p < 0.0001). The most common cardiovascular conditions in patients with a history of CVD were hypertension (33.7%), stroke (5.7%) and arrhythmias (5.1%). We found that troponin T, troponin I, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP), C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6 and lambda immunoglobulin free light chains (Ig FLC) were elevated above reference levels in patients with COVID-19. Myocarditis is known to occur mainly in adults under the age of 50, and when we examined biomarkers in patients that were ≤50 years of age and had no history of CVD we found that a majority of patients had elevated levels of troponin T (71.4%), IL-6 (59.5%), creatine kinase/CK-MB (57.1%), D-dimer (57.8%), kappa Ig FLC (75.0%), and lambda Ig FLC (71.4%) suggesting myocardial injury and possible myocarditis. Conclusions: We report the first findings to our knowledge of cardiovascular complications from COVID-19 in the first year of the pandemic in a predominantly Japanese population. Mortality was increased by a history of CVD and pre-existing conditions including type II diabetes, cancer, obesity, and kidney disease. Our findings indicate that even in cases where no abnormalities are found in ECG or ultrasound cardiography that myocardial damage may occur, and cardiovascular and inflammatory biomarkers may be useful for the diagnosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2350
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • biomarkers
  • heart failure
  • myocarditis
  • sex differences
  • troponin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


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