Cardiometabolic Outcomes and Mortality in Patients with Adrenal Adenomas in a Population-based Setting

Catherine D. Zhang, Dingfeng Li, Ravinder Jeet Kaur, Andreas Ebbehoj, Sumitabh Singh, Elizabeth J. Atkinson, Sara J. Achenbach, William F. Young, Wiebke Arlt, Walter A. Rocca, Irina Bancos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Context: While adrenal adenomas have been linked with cardiovascular morbidity in convenience samples of patients from specialized referral centers, large-scale population-based data are lacking. Objective: To determine the prevalence and incidence of cardiometabolic disease and assess mortality in a population-based cohort of patients with adrenal adenomas. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA. Patients: Patients diagnosed with adrenal adenomas without overt hormone excess and age- and sex-matched referent subjects without adrenal adenomas. Main outcome measure: Prevalence, incidence of cardiometabolic outcomes, mortality. Results: (Adrenal adenomas were diagnosed in 1004 patients (58% women, median age 63 years) from 1/01/1995 to 12/31/2017. At baseline, patients with adrenal adenomas were more likely to have hypertension [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.96, 95% CI 1.58-2.44], dysglycemia (aOR 1.63, 95% CI 1.33-2.00), peripheral vascular disease (aOR 1.59, 95% CI 1.32-2.06), heart failure (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.15-2.33), and myocardial infarction (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.02-2.22) compared to referent subjects. During median follow-up of 6.8 years, patients with adrenal adenomas were more likely than referent subjects to develop de novo chronic kidney disease [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.46, 95% CI 1.14-1.86], cardiac arrhythmia (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.58), peripheral vascular disease (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.55), cardiovascular events (aHR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01-1.73), and venous thromboembolic events (aHR 2.15, 95% CI 1.48-3.13). Adjusted mortality was similar between the 2 groups. Conclusion: Adrenal adenomas are associated with an increased prevalence and incidence of adverse cardiometabolic outcomes in a population-based cohort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3320-3330
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • adrenal incidentaloma
  • adrenal mass
  • cardiovascular events
  • cardiovascular outcomes
  • epidemiology
  • incidence
  • prevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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