Cardioinductive network guiding stem cell differentiation revealed by proteomic cartography of tumor necrosis factor α-primed endodermal secretome

D. Kent Arrell, Nicolas J. Niederländer, Randolph S. Faustino, Atta Behfar, Andre Terzic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations


In the developing embryo, instructive guidance from the ventral endoderm secures cardiac program induction within the anterolateral mesoderm. Endoderm-guided cardiogenesis, however, has yet to be resolved at the proteome level. Here, through cardiopoietic priming of the endoderm with the reprogramming cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), candidate effectors of embryonic stem cell cardiac differentiation were delineated by comparative proteomics. Differential two-dimensional gel electrophoretic mapping revealed that more than 75% of protein species increased >1.5-fold in the TNFα-primed versus unprimed endodermal secretome. Protein spot identification by linear ion trap quadrupole (LTQ) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and validation by shotgun LTQ-Fourier transform MS/MS following multidimensional chromatography mapped 99 unique proteins from 153 spot assignments. A definitive set of 48 secretome proteins was deduced by iterative bioinformatic screening using algorithms for detection of canonical and noncanonical indices of secretion. Protein-protein interaction analysis, in conjunction with respective expression level changes, revealed a nonstochastic TNFα-centric secretome network with a scale-free hierarchical architecture. Cardiovascular development was the primary developmental function of the resolved TNFα-anchored network. Functional cooperativity of the derived cardioinductive network was validated through direct application of the TNFα-primed secretome on embryonic stem cells, potentiating cardiac commitment and sarcomerogenesis. Conversely, inhibition of primary network hubs negated the procardiogenic effects of TNFα priming. Thus, proteomic cartography establishes a systems biology framework for the endodermal secretome network guiding stem cell cardiopoiesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)387-400
Number of pages14
JournalStem Cells
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2008


  • Cardiopoiesis
  • Embryonic stem cell
  • Endoderm
  • Multidimensional liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry
  • Network biology
  • Proteomics
  • Secretome
  • Systems biology
  • Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology


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