Calcium Stones

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


The majority of stones are predominantly composed of calcium, either in the form of calcium oxalate (70-75%) or calcium phosphate (5-10%). The risk factors for routine calcium oxalate stones are diverse, including hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, hyperuricosuria, and low urine volumes. High urine pH is an important etiological risk for calcium phosphate stone formers, some of whom clearly have distal renal tubular acidosis, either genetic or acquired. Secondary causes for calcium stones include primary hyperparathyroidism, enteric hyperoxaluria, and primary hyperoxaluria. Treatment strategies are aimed at reducing urinary supersaturation, and include a combination of dietary modifications and drugs, each tailored toward a given patient's risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUrinary Stones
Subtitle of host publicationMedical and Surgical Management
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781118405390
ISBN (Print)9781118405437
StatePublished - Feb 21 2014


  • Calcium oxalate
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Citrate
  • Enteric hyperoxaluria
  • Hypercalciuria
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Thiazides
  • Uric acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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