Breath-hold MR measurements of blood flow velocity in internal mammary arteries and coronary artery bypass grafts

Hajime Sakuma, Sebastian Globits, Margaret O'Sullivan, Ann Shimakawa, Matt A. Bernstein, Thomas K.F. Foo, Thomas M. Amidon, Kan Takeda, Tsuyoshi Nakagawa, Charles B. Higgins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Breath-hold velocity-encoded cine MR (VENC-MR) imaging is a feasible method for measuring phasic blood flow velocity in small vessels that move during respiration. The purposes of the current study are to compare breathhold VENC-MR measurements of flow velocities in the internal mammary arteries (IMA) with nonbreath-hold measurements and to characterize the systolic and diastolic flow velocity curves in a cardiac cycle in native IMA and IMA grafts. Flow velocity in 30 native IMA and 8 IMA grafts were evaluated with a breath-hold VENC-MR sequence with K-space segmentation and view-sharing reconstruction(TR/TE = 16/9 msec, VENC = 100 cm/s). In 10 native IMA, nonbreath-hold VENC-MR images were acquired as well for comparison. Breath-hold VENC-MR imaging showed significantly higher systolic and diastolic peak velocities in native IMA (43.1 cm/second ± 15.0 and 10.0 cm/second ± 4.8), in comparison to those of nonbreath-hold VENC-MR imaging (27.6 cm/second ± 10.2 and 7.3 cm/ second ± 3.9, P < .05). The diastolic/systolic peak velocity ratio in the IMA grafts (.88 ± .41) was significantly higher than that in native IMA (.24 ± .08, P < .01). Interobserver variability in the flow velocity measurement was less than 4%. Breath-hold VENC-MR imaging demonstrated higher peak flow velocity in the IMA than nonbreath-hold VENC-MR imaging. This technique is a rapid and effective method for the noninvasive assessment of blood flow velocity in IMA grafts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)219-222
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1996


  • Coronary artery bypass graft
  • Coronary flow
  • Internal mammary artery
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Rapid MR imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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