Biomedical Applications of Untethered Mobile Milli/Microrobots

Metin Sitti, Hakan Ceylan, Wenqi Hu, Joshua Giltinan, Mehmet Turan, Sehyuk Yim, Eric Diller

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Untethered robots miniaturized to the length scale of millimeter and below attract growing attention for the prospect of transforming many aspects of health care and bioengineering. As the robot size goes down to the order of a single cell, previously inaccessible body sites would become available for high-resolution in situ and in vivo manipulations. This unprecedented direct access would enable an extensive range of minimally invasive medical operations. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current advances in biomedical untethered mobile milli/microrobots. We put a special emphasis on the potential impacts of biomedical microrobots in the near future. Finally, we discuss the existing challenges and emerging concepts associated with designing such a miniaturized robot for operation inside a biological environment for biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7067029
Pages (from-to)205-224
Number of pages20
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • Biomedical engineering
  • medical robots
  • microrobots
  • minimally invasive surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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