Bad players in AL amyloidosis in the current era of treatment

Natalia Kreiniz, Morie A. Gertz

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Introduction: Systemic AL amyloidosis (ALA) is a clonal plasma cell (PC) disease characterized by deposition of amyloid fibrils in different organs and tissues. Traditionally, the prognosis of ALA is poor and is primarily defined by cardiac involvement. The modern prognostic models are based on cardiac markers and free light chain difference (dFLC). Cardiac biomarkers have low specificity and are dependent on renal function, volume status, and cardiac diseases other than ALA. New therapies significantly improved the prognosis of the disease. The advancements in technologies–cardiac echocardiography (ECHO) and cardiac MRI (CMR), as well as new biological markers, relying on cardiac injury, inflammation, endothelial damage, and clonal and non-clonal PC markers are promising. Areas covered: An update on the prognostic significance of cardiac ALA, number of involved organs, response to treatment, including minimal residual disease (MRD), ECHO, MRI, and new biological markers will be discussed. The literature search was done in PubMed and Google Scholar, and the most recent and relevant data are included. Expert opinion: Prospective multicenter trials, evaluating multiple clinical and laboratory parameters, should be done to improve the risk assessment models in ALA in the modern era of therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)33-49
Number of pages17
JournalExpert Review of Hematology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2023


  • AL amyloidosis
  • BNP
  • biological markers
  • cardiac amyloidosis
  • immunoglobulin free light chains
  • prognosis
  • systemic amyloidosis
  • troponin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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