Autoimmune/Paraneoplastic Encephalitis Antibody Biomarkers: Frequency, Age, and Sex Associations

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Objective: To determine the frequency of detection and the age and sex associations of autoimmune/paraneoplastic encephalitis antibody biomarkers (AE-Abs). Methods: There were 42,032 patients tested in the Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory between January 2018 and December 2019 for AE-Abs in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), including NMDA-R-IgG, AMPA-R-IgG, GABAB-R-IgG, CASPR2-IgG, LGI1-IgG, GAD65-IgG, CRMP5-IgG, amphiphysin-IgG, PCA1/2/Tr-IgGs, ANNA1/2/3-IgGs, GFAP-IgG, mGluR1-IgG, DPPX-IgG, and MOG-IgG1. Results were examined to determine frequency of antibody positivity. Age and sex associations were examined by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Adult serum analysis (22,472 patients; 56% female) revealed that 814 (3.6%) were positive: NMDA-R-IgG (24.6%) > GAD65-IgG (21.5%) > LGI1-IgG (20.5%) > others. Of children (5649; 50% female), 251 (4.4%) were positive: NMDA-R-IgG (53.1%) > MOG-IgG1 (32%) > GAD65-IgG (7.1%) > others. Adult CSF analysis (18,745 patients; 54% female) revealed that 796 (4.2%) were positive: NMDA-R-IgG (39.7%) > GAD65-IgG (28.5%) > LGI1-IgG (11.4%) > others. Of children (5136; 50% female), 282 (5.5%) were positive: NMDA-R-IgG (88.1%) > GAD65-IgG (8.7%) > others. Age younger than 20 years was associated with NMDA-R-IgG and MOG-IgG1 (odds ratio [OR], 8.11 and 7.84, respectively; P<.001). Age older than 65 years was associated with GABAB-R-IgG, LGI1-IgG, CASPR2-IgG, and ANNA1-IgG (OR, 7.33, 14.98, 3.67, and 14.53; P<.001). Women accounted for 60% of NMDA-R-IgG (CSF) and 78% of GAD65-IgG (CSF and serum) cohorts (OR, 1.32 [P=.002] and 2.23 [P<.001], respectively). Men accounted for 62% of the LGI1-IgG cohort (OR, 1.87; P<.001). Age and sex interacted for NMDA-R-IgG, particularly in female patients younger than 20 years (OR, 7.72; P<.001). Conclusion: The most frequent AE-Abs detected were NMDA-R-IgG, GAD65-IgG, LGI1-IgG, and MOG-IgG1. Age and sex associations may suggest paraneoplastic, or aging influences on neurologic autoimmunity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)547-559
Number of pages13
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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