Assessment of the learning curve for EUS-guided gastroenterostomy for a single operator

Manol Jovani, Yervant Ichkhanian, Nasim Parsa, Sahiljeet Singh, Olaya I. Brewer Gutierrez, Margaret G. Keane, Sarah S. Al Ghamdi, Saowanee Ngamruengphong, Vivek Kumbhari, Mouen A. Khashab

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background and Aims: EUS-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) is increasingly used as an alternative to surgery and enteral stent placement to manage gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). However, no data are available on the learning curve (LC) for EUS-GE. Defining the LC is necessary to create adequate subspecialty training programs and quality assurance. Methods: This study is a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained dataset of patients who underwent EUS-GE at 1 tertiary referral center. Primary outcome was the LC for EUS-GE defined by the number of cases needed to achieve proficiency and mastery using cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. Moving average graphs and sequential time-block analysis were also performed to assess procedural time. Secondary outcomes included efficacy and safety of EUS-GE. Results: Eighty-seven consecutive patients underwent EUS-GE, mostly for malignant GOO. For consistency, 14 patients were excluded from analysis (noncautery-assisted EUS-GE, 11; surgical anatomy, 3). The same endoscopist performed all procedures using the same freehand technique. Technical success was achieved in 68 of 73 patients (93%). Immediate adverse events occurred in 4 patients (5.5%), whereas late adverse events occurred only in 1 patient (1%), all managed conservatively or endoscopically. All immediate adverse events occurred during the first 39 cases. Clinical success (defined as resuming at least an oral liquid diet within a week) was achieved in 97% of patients. The mean procedural time was 36 minutes (standard deviation, 24). Evaluation of the CUSUM curve revealed that 25 cases were needed to achieve proficiency and 40 cases to achieve mastery. These results were confirmed with the average moving curve and sequential time-block analysis. Conclusions: We report, for the first time, data on the LC for EUS-GE. About 25 procedures can be considered as the threshold to achieve proficiency and about 40 cases are needed to reach mastery of the technique.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1088-1093
Number of pages6
JournalGastrointestinal endoscopy
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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