Assessment of left ventricular filling pressure with Doppler velocities across the patent foramen ovale

Saki Ito, Sumandeep Dhesi, William R. Miranda, Jeffrey B. Geske, Nandan S. Anavekar, Kareem Morant, Charanjit S. Rihal, Mackram F. Eleid, Jae K. Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The utility of Doppler velocities across the patent foramen ovale (PFO) to estimate left ventricular (LV) filling pressure is not well known. Methods: The best cut-off value of peak interatrial septal velocity across a transeptal puncture site measured by transesophageal echocardiography for estimating high mean left atrial (LA) pressure (≥ 15 mmHg) was determined in 17 patients. This cut-off value was subsequently applied to 67 patients with a PFO undergoing transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) for assessing the value of PFO velocity in determining LV filling pressure. Results: The peak systolic interatrial septal velocities significantly correlated with directly measured mean LA pressures during transcatheter mitral valve procedure (r = 0.77, P < 0.001). The best cut-off value was 1.7 m/s for predicting high LA pressure (AUC 0.91; sensitivity 90%, specificity 86%). When this cut-off was applied to patients undergoing TTE, peak PFO velocity ≥ 1.7 m/s correlated with reduced e′, higher E/e′, and higher tricuspid regurgitation velocity (P < 0.01). LV filling pressure according to the 2016 diastolic guideline was compared with peak PFO velocity in 51 patients. Among patients with high filling pressure according to the guidelines (n = 20), peak PFO velocity ≥ 1.7 m/s was present in 60% of patients. In patients with normal filling pressure per the guidelines (n = 31), PFO velocity < 1.7 m/s was present 84%. Sensitivity and specificity were 75% and 92%, respectively, in patients with sinus rhythm, but were only 50% and 57%, respectively, among patients with atrial fibrillation. Conclusions: Doppler-derived peak PFO velocities could be valuable in the assessment of increased LV filling pressure using 1.7 m/s as the cut-off value.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)158-165
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Echocardiography
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • Diastology
  • LA pressure
  • LV filling pressure
  • PFO

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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