Assessment of dietary sodium intake using the scored salt questionnaire in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Annette T.Y. Wong, Alexandra Munt, Margaret Allman-Farinelli, Sunil V. Badve, Neil Boudville, Helen Coolican, Ashley N. Chandra, Susan Coulshed, Mangalee Fernando, Jared Grantham, Imad Haloob, David C.H. Harris, Carmel M. Hawley, Jane Holt, David W. Johnson, Karthik Kumar, Vincent W. Lee, Maureen Lonergan, Jun Mai, Anna RanganSimon D. Roger, Sayanthooran Saravanabavan, Kamal Sud, Vicente E. Torres, Eswari Vilayur, Jennifer Q.J. Zhang, Gopala K. Rangan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The excess intake of dietary sodium is a key modifiable factor for reducing disease progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the scored salt questionnaire (SSQ; a frequency questionnaire of nine sodium-rich food types) is a valid instrument to identify high dietary salt intake in ADPKD. The performance of the SSQ was evaluated in adults with ADPKD with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 during the screening visit of the PREVENT-ADPKD trial. High dietary sodium intake (HSI) was defined by a mean 24-hour urinary sodium excretion ≥ 100 mmol/day from two collections. The median 24-hr urine sodium excretion was 132 mmol/day (IQR: 112–172 mmol/d) (n = 75; mean age: 44.6 ± 11.5 years old; 53% female), and HSI (86.7% of total) was associated with male gender and higher BMI and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). The SSQ score (73 ± 23; mean ± SD) was weakly correlated with log10 24-hr urine sodium excretion (r = 0.29, p= 0.01). Receiving operating characteristic analysis showed that the optimal cut-off point in predicting HSI was an SSQ score of 74 (area under the curve 0.79; sensitivity 61.5%; specificity 90.0%; p < 0.01). The evaluation of the SSQ in participants with a BMI ≥ 25 (n = 46) improved the sensitivity (100%) and the specificity (100%). Consumers with an SSQ score ≥ 74 (n = 41) had higher relative percentage intake of processed meats/seafood and flavourings added to cooking (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the SSQ is a valid tool for identifying high dietary salt intake in ADPKD but its value proposition (over 24-hr urinary sodium measurement) is that it may provide consumers and their healthcare providers with insight into the potential origin of sodium-rich food sources.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number3376
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2020


  • 24-h urine
  • Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  • Diet
  • Food frequency questionnaire
  • Progression
  • Salt
  • Sodium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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