Artificial intelligence (ai)-empowered echocardiography interpretation: A state-of-the-art review

Zeynettin Akkus, Yousof H. Aly, Itzhak Z. Attia, Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, Adelaide M. Arruda-Olson, Patricia A. Pellikka, Sorin V. Pislaru, Garvan C. Kane, Paul A. Friedman, Jae K. Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Echocardiography (Echo), a widely available, noninvasive, and portable bedside imaging tool, is the most frequently used imaging modality in assessing cardiac anatomy and function in clinical practice. On the other hand, its operator dependability introduces variability in image acquisition, measurements, and interpretation. To reduce these variabilities, there is an increasing demand for an operator- and interpreter-independent Echo system empowered with artificial intelligence (AI), which has been incorporated into diverse areas of clinical medicine. Recent advances in AI applications in computer vision have enabled us to identify conceptual and complex imaging features with the self-learning ability of AI models and efficient parallel computing power. This has resulted in vast opportunities such as providing AI models that are robust to variations with generalizability for instantaneous image quality control, aiding in the acquisition of optimal images and diagnosis of complex diseases, and improving the clinical workflow of cardiac ultrasound. In this review, we provide a state-of-the art overview of AI-empowered Echo applications in cardiology and future trends for AI-powered Echo technology that standardize measurements, aid physicians in diagnosing cardiac diseases, optimize Echo workflow in clinics, and ultimately, reduce healthcare costs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1391
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


  • Artificial intelligence
  • Cardiac ultrasound
  • Echocardiography
  • Portable ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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