An expert consensus statement on use of adrenal vein sampling for the subtyping of primary aldosteronism

Gian Paolo Rossi, Richard J. Auchus, Morris Brown, Jacques W.M. Lenders, Mitsuhide Naruse, Pierre Francois Plouin, Fumitoshi Satoh, William F. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

282 Scopus citations


Adrenal venous sampling is recommended by current guidelines to identify surgically curable causes of hyperaldosteronism but remains markedly underused. Key factors contributing to the poor use of adrenal venous sampling include the prevailing perceptions that it is a technically challenging procedure, difficult to interpret, and can be complicated by adrenal vein rupture. In addition, the lack of uniformly accepted standards for the performance of adrenal venous sampling contributes to its limited use. Hence, an international panel of experts working at major referral centers was assembled to provide updated advice on how to perform and interpret adrenal venous sampling. To this end, they were asked to use the PICO (Patient or Problem, Intervention, Control or comparison, Outcome) strategy to gather relevant information from the literature and to rely on their own experience. The level of evidence/recommendation was provided according to American Heart Association gradings whenever possible. A consensus was reached on several key issues, including the selection and preparation of the patients for adrenal venous sampling, the procedure for its optimal performance, and the interpretation of its results for diagnostic purposes even in the most challenging cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)151-160
Number of pages10
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2014


  • Adrenal vein sampling
  • Aldosterone
  • Diagnosis
  • Hyperaldosteronism
  • Hypertension

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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