ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® Acute Respiratory Illness in Immunocompromised Patients

Darel E. Heitkamp, Matthias M. Albin, Jonathan H. Chung, Traves P. Crabtree, Mark D. Iannettoni, Geoffrey B. Johnson, Clinton Jokerst, Barbara L. McComb, Anthony G. Saleh, Rakesh D. Shah, Robert M. Steiner, Tan Lucien H. Mohammed, James G. Ravenel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


The respiratory system is often affected by complications of immunodeficiency, typically manifesting clinically as acute respiratory illness. Ongoing literature reviews regarding the appropriateness of imaging in these patients are critical, as advanced medical therapies including stem cell transplantation, chemotherapy, and immunosuppressive therapies for autoimmune disease continue to keep the population of immunosuppressed patients in our health care system high. This ACR Appropriateness Criteria ® topic describes clinical scenarios of acute respiratory illness in immunocompromised patients with cough, dyspnea, chest pain, and fever, in those with negative, equivocal, or nonspecific findings on chest radiography, in those with multiple, diffuse, or confluent opacities on chest radiography, and in those in whom noninfectious disease is suspected. The use of chest radiography, chest computed tomography, transthoracic needle biopsy, and nuclear medicine imaging is discussed in the context of these clinical scenarios. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)W2-W5
JournalJournal of thoracic imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 2015


  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • acute respiratory illness
  • imaging
  • immunocompromised
  • pneumonia
  • pulmonary infection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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