A survey of characteristics of smokeless tobacco users in a treatment program

Jon O. Ebbert, Martin D. Klinkhammer, Susanna R. Stevens, Lean C. Rowland, Kenneth P. Offord, Steven C. Ames, Lowell C. Dale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the characteristics and outcomes of smokeless tobacco (ST) users receiving interventions in an outpatient tobacco-dependence treatment program. Methods: Survey was mailed with telephone follow-up to ST users treated during a 2-year period. Results: Nicotine replacement therapy and family and social support were the most helpful intervention components in maintaining tobacco abstinence. Continuing ST users face significant barriers to abstinence such as high levels of nicotine dependence, lack of motivation, nicotine withdrawal symptoms, and stress. Conclusions: Enhancing confidence in their ability to quit, managing stress, prescribing bupropion SR, offering nicotine replacement therapy to relieve withdrawal symptoms, and providing ongoing support may be important for ST users in tobacco-dependence treatment programs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Behavior
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2005


  • Cross-sectional studies
  • Health care surveys
  • Smokeless
  • Tobacco
  • Tobacco use cessation
  • Tobacco use disorder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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