A flexible view ordering technique for high-quality real-time 2DFT MR fluoroscopy

Reed F. Busse, David G. Kruger, Josef P. Debbins, Sean B. Fain, Stephen J. Riederer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


A method to tailor the view order to the reconstruction cycle is introduced for real-time MRI. It is well known that view sharing and oversampling central k-space views can improve the temporal resolution of gradient-echo pulse sequences. By ordering phase-encodes to synchronize k- space acquisition with the reconstruction cycle, apparent temporal resolution can match the frame rate with as few as one-fourth of the phase-encodes sampled per reconstruction. Spatial resolution is maintained by periodically updating high spatial frequencies. In addition to apparent temporal resolution, three other criteria for real-time imaging are identified and evaluated: display latency, dispersion, and frame-to-frame consistency. Latency is minimized by ordering views in a reverse-centric manner within each reconstruction interval, sampling high-energy views immediately prior to beginning reconstruction. Dispersion is kept low and consistent by synchronizing acquisition and reconstruction, thus avoiding poorly timed reconstruction instances. Real-time implementation demonstrates pulsatile time-of-flight blood signal enhancement in humans.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)69-81
Number of pages13
JournalMagnetic Resonance in Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1999


  • Dynamic imaging
  • Real-time MRI
  • Temporal resolution
  • View order

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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