A Contemporary Analysis of Urethral Recurrence following Radical Cystectomy

Abhinav Khanna, Andrew Zganjar, Timothy Lyon, Paras Shah, Matthew K. Tollefson, R. Jeffrey Karnes, Robert Tarrell, Prabin Thapa, R. Houston Thompson, Igor Frank, Stephen A. Boorjian

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Oncologic outcomes following urethral recurrence (UR) remain incompletely described, with reports limited by small cohort sizes. We evaluated risk factors for UR as well as cancer-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) among patients with UR. Materials and Methods: We reviewed our institutional radical cystectomy (RC) registry to identify patients with UR. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess risk factors for UR. Kaplan-Meier and Cox models were used to assess the relationship between UR and CSS/OS as well as to compare outcomes following symptomatic vs asymptomatic presentation of UR. Results: Overall, 2,930 patients underwent RC from 1980 to 2018, with a median postoperative followup of 7.1 years (IQR 2.8-13.1), of whom 144 (4.9%) were subsequently diagnosed with UR. Carcinoma in situ (HR 1.98, 95% CI 1.30-3.04), multifocal disease (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.07-2.36) and prostatic urethral involvement at RC (HR 3.01, 95% CI 1.98-4.57) were associated with increased risk of UR. UR was associated with decreased CSS (HR 7.30, 95% CI 5.46-9.76) and OS (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.54-2.24). A total of 63/144 patients were diagnosed with UR based on symptoms, while 104/144 patients with UR underwent urethrectomy. Patients with symptomatic UR had higher tumor stage at urethrectomy (≥pT2 in 13.1% vs 3.1%, p=0.007), while patients with asymptomatic UR experienced longer median CSS (12.1 vs 6.1 years) and OS (8.30 vs 4.82 years; p=0.05 for both). Conclusions: We identified pathological risk factors for UR after RC and report adverse subsequent survival outcomes for these patients. Presentation with symptomatic UR was associated with higher tumor stage and poorer prognosis, supporting a value to continued urethral surveillance after RC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)970-977
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2021


  • cell biology
  • cystectomy
  • recurrence
  • urinary bladder neoplasms

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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