A beamforming study for implementation of vibro-acoustography with a 1.75-D array transducer

Matthew W. Urban, Carl Chalek, Bruno Haider, Kai Thomenius, Mostafa Fatemi, Azra Alizad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Vibro-acoustography (VA) is an ultrasoundbased imaging modality that uses radiation force produced by two cofocused ultrasound beams separated by a small frequency difference, Δf, to vibrate tissue at Δf. An acoustic field is created by the object vibration and measured with a nearby hydrophone. This method has recently been implemented on a clinical ultrasound system using 1-D linear-array transducers. In this article, we discuss VA beamforming and image formation using a 1.75-D array transducer. A 1.75-D array transducer has several rows of elements in the elevation direction which can be controlled independently for focusing. The advantage of the 1.75-D array over a 1-D linear-array transducer is that multiple rows of elements can be used for improving elevation focus for imaging formation. Six configurations for subaperture design for the two ultrasound beams necessary for VA imaging were analyzed. The point-spread functions for these different configurations were evaluated using a numerical simulation model. Four of these configurations were then chosen for experimental evaluation with a needle hydrophone as well as for scanning two phantoms. Images were formed by scanning a urethane breast phantom and an ex vivo human prostate. VA imaging using a 1.75-D array transducer offers several advantages over scanning with a linear-array transducer, including improved image resolution and contrast resulting from better elevation focusing of the imaging point-spread function.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6470414
Pages (from-to)535-551
Number of pages17
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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