Normal pulmonary function relies upon the configuration of the microscopic and macroscopic structural components of the lungs. The 3-dimensional microscopic lung structure is clearly apparent through techniques such as micro-CT, but in-vivo examination of human lungs cannot be examined on micro-CT. However, the near microscopic structure of the lungs can be visualized through volumetric high-resolution computed tomography (CT) on modern multidetector scanner at isotropic resolution of less than a millimeter. The properties of these near-microscopic structures of the lung can be analyzed through image processing algorithms, and alterations in these structures due to pulmonary disease can be detected and quantified through use of these same algorithms. For example, the changes visually apparent in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)-a disease in which normal lung is distorted and replaced by fibrous tissue and abnormal air spaces-can be detected and quantified through morphological analysis.